Стоянов 2020. Облигатни паразити от сем. Orobanchaceae (Воловодецови) в България

Стоянов 2002. Облигатни паразити от сем. Orobanchaceae (Воловодецови) в БългарияPDFСтоянов К.Х. 2020.
Облигатни паразити от сем. Orobanchaceae (Воловодецови) в България
Интел Ентранс, София. ISBN: 978-619-7554-36-6.

Stoyanov K.H. 2020
Holoparasitic plants of Oronabchaceae family in Bulgaria
Intel Entrance, Sofia. ISBN: 978-619-7554-36-6.

Summary
This study covers revision of materials from the Bulgarian (SOM, SOA and SO) and some European (W, WU, MA, COA, I) herbaria. The author’s specimens are collected during 2002-2019. Three groups of methods are applied – morphological, molecular and ecological. The parasitic members of the family are represented in Bulgaria by three genera – Phelipanche (2 sections, 5 species, 2 subspecies and 11 varieties), Orobanche (2 sections, 6 subsections, 19 species, 4 subspecies and 7 varieties) and Lathraea (2 species). Five new taxa are found for the Bulgarian flora: P. mutelii var. spissa, P. mutelii var. angustiflora and O. hederae, O. centaurina, O. alba subsp. xanthostigma. The variety P. oxyloba var. macranthum is restored. Orobanche alba var. substenophylla is unproved. Seven species are not confirmed – P. aegyptiaca, P. lavandulacea, О. cernua, O. elatior, O. coerulescens, O. rapum-genistae and O. grisebachii. Orobanche serbica is confirmed only in two localities. Nomenclator corrections of 7 taxa are done [new combinations in genus Phelipanche: P. ramosa var. macranthum (T. Georgiev) Stoyanov, P. oxyloba var. dalmatica (Beck) Stoyanov, P. oxyloba var. macranthum (T. Georgiev) Stoyanov, P. mutelii var. spissa (Beck) Stoyanov, P. mutelii var. angustiflora (Beck) Stoyanov, P. arenaria var. euxina (Velen.) Stoyanov, P. purpurea var. hirsuta (Beck) Stoyanov].
The character of the seed testa enables identification in genus Phelipanche, its division from Orobanche, and the confirmation of the sections Arenariae and Phelipanche. The methods on three molecular levels (polyphenols, isosyms and DNA) confirm the genus level of genus Phelipanche. The diversity in P. ramosa suggests metabolic adaptation to wide trophic spectrum. The peroxidase spectra are divergent in infrageneric level. They are host independent and show taxonomic important loci. Phelipanche mutelii displays variability to specific peroxydase genes – two recessive alleles are pleiotropically displayed as albinism. The ISSR method is trophicaly independent and have taxonomic value. The popular forms of P. ramosa are not genetically determinated. The applied methods divide populations according to the drainage basins of Mesta and Maritsa rivers.
An intraspecific position of P. ramosa subsp. nana is accepted.
The altitude range of genus Phelipanche is lower than genus Orobanche. The subalpean schrub belt consist 4 Orobanche species. The ecological plasticity and the polymorphism are related to the polination mechanism. The trophic specialisation of genus Orobanche is higher than genus Phelipanche.
Two independent evolutionary lines are related to the known genera. The main line of Phelipanche shows trophic isolation, accompanied with autogamy and polyphagy. The main line of Orobanche is related with transition to enthomophyly and oligophagy to monophagy.

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